Onomatopoeia: Is defined as a word which imitates the natural sounds of a thing. It creates a sound effect that mimics the thing described, making the description more expressive and interesting.
example: Boom! Bang! Crash!
Pidgin: Is a simplified form of speech formed out of one or more existing languages and used as a lingua franca by people who have no other language in common. Also known as a pidgin language or an auxiliary language.
example: Benin pidgin: spoken by the Benin people of Edo state
Roughly: Is a manner lacking refinement and precision.
example: Roughly speaking, it’s 2.25 million.
Smoothness: A texture without roughness; smooth to the touch
example: a smooth fabric.
Dioeciously: Having male reproductive organs in one individual and female in another.
example: The plant is dioecious, with small white flowers borne profusely in axillary clusters.
Quadraphonic: Designating or of sound reproduction, as on records or tapes or in broadcasting, using four channels to carry and reproduce through separate speakers a blend of sounds from separate sources also quad·ra·son′ic.
example: A CD player with quadraphonic sound
Metaphor: Is a figure of speech that describes an object or action in a way that isn’t literally true, but helps explain an idea or make a comparison.
example: The mind is an ocean” and “the city is a jungle”
Bobby: What are you doing screwing around with all this crap?
Catherine: I do not find your language very charming.
Bobby: It isn’t. It’s direct.
Catherine: I’d like you to leave so that I can take a bath. Is that direct?
(Jack Nicholson and Susan Anspach in Five Easy Pieces, 1970)
Synchronic: Concerned with events existing in a limited time period and ignoring historical antecedents
example: Determining the regions of the United States in which people currently say ‘pop’ rather than ‘soda’ and ‘idea’ rather than ‘idear’.
Diachronic: Concerned with the study of changes occurring over a period of time, as in language, mores, etc.
example: What was the sequence of events and facts, and what the moving parts, that led from the foundation of the Second Triumvirate to its dissolution and, inter alia, Antony’s defeat by Octavian at Actium?
Morpheme: Is the smallest unit of meaning in a language.
example: “Worker” contains two morphemes: “work” and “-er”.
Word: A single unit of language that has meaning and can be spoken or written.
Compound: Is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
example: She did not cheat on the test, for it was not the right thing to do.
Lexeme: A word or stem that is a meaningful unit in a language and coincides with the abstract unit underlying a given set of inflected forms.
example: banana, love, animal, run
Neologism: A neologism is a new word or expression in a language, or a new meaning for an existing word or expression.
example: Tweet cred: social standing on Twitter.
Base: Is a bigger unit to which an affix attaches or to which a morphological process applies.
Conversion: The process of changing the function of a word, such as a noun to a verb, as way of forming new words, also known as ´category change´ or ´functional shift”.
example: (noun) access – to access (verb)
Voiceless: Produce without vibration of the vocal cords; “unvoiced consonants such as ‘p’ and ‘k’ and ‘s’.
example: Surd, unvoiced, hard
Voice: Is a grammatical category that expresses the semantic functions attributed to the referents of a clause.
example: Jones built the house.
Voiced: A voiced speech sound is one that is produced with vibration of the vocal cords.
example: Book (bk)
Allomorph: An allomorph is one of two or more complementary morphs which manifest a morpheme in its different phonological or morphological environments.
examples: [-s] as in [hQts] ‘hats’
Bound: Morphemes that can only be attached to another part of a word (cannot stand alone) are called bound morphemes.
examples: pre-, dis-, in-, un-, -ful, -able, -ment, -ly.
Declension: In certain languages, the inflection of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives with respect to categories such as case, number, and gender.
examples: descent, slope
Prefix: Is a syllable placed before a word to modify its meaning.
Suffix: A letter or group of letters added at the end of a word to make a new word:
example: The adverb “sadly” is formed by adding the suffix “-ly” to the adjective “sad.”
Affix: One or more sounds or letters occurring as a bound form attached to the beginning or end of a word, base, or phrase or inserted within a word or base and serving to produce a derivative word or an inflectional form.
example: The affix in the word “attendance” is “-ance.”
Inflectional: In English morphology, an inflectional morpheme is a suffix that’s added to a word to assign a particular grammatical property to that word.
example: table + -s–> tables
Acronym: A word formed from the initial letters or groups of words in a set phrase or series of words and pronounced as a separate word.
example: AIDS is an acronym for “Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome”.
Stem: In English grammar and morphology, a stem is the form of a word before any inflectional affixes are added.
Transcription: A representation of speech sounds in phonetic symbols.
example: The “w” sound in wine and twine (the first is voiced, the second is not)
Figurative: Figurative language is language in which figures of speech (such as metaphors and metonyms) freely occur. Contrast with literal speech or language.
example: “It is midmorning. A few minutes ago I took my coffee break. I am speaking figuratively, of course. There’s not a drop of coffee in this place and there never has been.”
Hierarchy: In grammar, hierarchy refers to any ordering of units or levels on a scale of size, abstraction, or subordination. Adjective: hierarchical. Also called syntactic hierarchy or morpho-syntactic hierarchy.
example: The women were wearing white clothes.
Rhetoric: Is a technique of using language effectively and persuasively in spoken or written form. It is an art of discourse, which studies and employs various methods to convince, influence, or please an audience.
example: “I am never ever going to rob anyone for you and never, never ever give in to your sinful wish.”
Stop: In phonetics, a stop consonant is the sound made by completely blocking the flow of air and then releasing it. Also known as a plosive.
examples: the sounds [p], [t], and [k] are voiceless stops (also called plosives).
Auxiliary: Finite verb used in compound verbal constructions.
examples: I have done, we are going, did you know)
Allophone: Is a phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language.
examples: [p] and [pH] are allophones of the phoneme /p/.
Infix: An infix is a word element (a type of affix) that can be inserted within the base form of a word—rather than at its beginning or end—to create a new word or intensify meaning. The process of inserting an infix is called infixation. The most common type of infix in English grammar is the expletive.
examples: Bili: root ‘buy’
–um-: infix ‘AGT’
bumili: word ‘bought’
Babbling: The production of meaningless strings of speech sounds by infants.
examples: Blah, blah, la, la.
Assimilation: Is a general term in phonetics for the process by which a speech sound becomes similar or identical to a neighboring sound. In the opposite process, dissimilation, sounds become less similar to one another.
examples: / t / changes to / p / before / m / / b / or / p /
Coinage: Is the word formation process in which a new word is created either deliberately or accidentally without using the other word formation processes and often from seemingly nothing.
Clipping: Is a process of shortening a word by omitting one or two of its parts.
example: exam = examination
Clitic: Is a type of morpheme (unit of meaning) that cannot stand on its own (it must be joined with another word/morpheme).
examples: “m” in I’m,
“ve” in we’ve, and the “‘s”
Clause: A group of words containing a subject and a predicate and forming part of a compound or complexsentence.
examples: It is cold, although the sun is shining.
Deixis: Is a word or phrase that points to the time, place, or situation in which a speaker is speaking. Deixis is expressed in English by way of personal pronouns, demonstratives, adverbs, and tense.
examples: This, that, these, those, now, then, here
Collocation: Is the action of collocate a word or phrase that is often used with another word or phrase, in a way that sounds correct to people who have spoken the language all their lives.
examples: In the phrase “a hard frost”, “hard” is a collocation of “frost” and “strong” would not sound natural.
Backformation: Is the process of forming a new word (a neologism) by removing actual or supposed affixes from another word.
examples: ‘Televise’, which is formed from ‘television’
Suppletion: Is the use of two or more phonetically distinct rots for different forms of the same word, such as the adjective bad and its suppletive comparative form worse.
examples: Five and fifth
Derivation: In morphology, derivation is the process of creating a new word out of an old word, usually by adding a prefix or a suffix.
examples: Kindness is derived from kind.
Syllable: Is one or more letters representing a unit of spoken language consisting of a single uninterrupted sound.
examples: Rhyme = /aʊns/
Syntagmatic: A word to formed from the initial letters or group of letters of words in a set phrase or series of words and pronounced as a separate word.
examples: The sun is shining.